Arterial Heat Balance Thermometry at an Exposed Skin Site: Accuracy, Comfort, and Convenience for Patient and Clinician
There has in the past been no method of thermometry that is considered by patients and clinicians to be comfortable, convenient, and accurate. Rectal, oral, axilla, and ear thermometry all have either significant discomfort due to the use of a body cavity, artifactual inaccuracies due to physiological/device phenomena, or both, thus making them less than desirable for the needs of both patient and clinician. The exposed skin eliminates the use of a body cavity, but an accurate method using the skin has heretofore not been demonstrated.
The superficial temporal artery demonstrates the necessary requirements for the skin thermometry method: it is easily accessible, contains no mucous membranes, and notably, it has no or very few arteriovenous anastomoses (AVA). Lack of AVA's means that perfusion rate is reliable under essentially all conditions, and the blood flow is relatively free of vasomotor control in response to thermomoregulatory stimuli. This property is unique to the temporal artery when considering all accessible cutaneous blood vessels. The high and reliable perfusion allows accurate mathematical computations of the heat lost to the environment due to the cutaneous flow, and thus an accurate calculation of the source arterial temperature at the heart.
As a site for temperature measurement, the temporal artery presents many benefits: it poses no risk of injury for patient or clinician, eliminates any need for disrobing or unbundling, and is suitable for all ages. Accordingly, Exergen, incorporating a patented and well-proven arterial heat balance method, developed instrumentation for non-invasive arterial temperature assessment on the skin over temporal artery. The following published peer-reviewed independent studies and papers support the validity of this method.
Peer-Reviewed Published Papers, Abstracts, Letters on Exergen Temporal Artery Thermometry as of 14 May 2018
1. Allegaert K, Casteels K, van Gorp I, Bogaert G. Tympanic, infrared skin, and temporal artery scan thermometers compared with rectal measurement in children: a real-life assessment. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 2014 May 8;76:34-8. doi: 10.1016/j.curtheres.2013.11.005. eCollection 2014.
2. Al-Mukhaizeem F, Allen U, Komar L, et al (University of Toronto/Hospital for Sick Children). Validation of the temporal artery thermometry by its comparison with the esophageal method in children. Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting, May 3-6, 2003, Seattle, WA
3. Al-Mukhaizeem F, Allen U, Komar L, et al (University of Toronto/Hospital for Sick Children). Comparison of temporal artery, rectal and esophageal core temperatures in children: Results of a pilot study. Journal of Pediatric and Child Health, Vol 9, No 7, pp 461-465, 2004
4. Artz BA, March KS, Grim RD ( WellSpan Health–York Hospital). Clinical Nurse Specialists empowering staff to improve patient outcomes in temperature measurement: from PI/EBP to nursing research. 2011 National Association of Clinical Nurse Specialists National Conference Abstracts, March 10-12, 2011, Baltimore MD
5. Bahorski J, Repasky T, Ranner D, Fields A, Jackson M, Moultry L, Pierce K, Sandell M (Tallahassee Memorial Healthcare). Temperature measurement in pediatrics: a comparison of the rectal method versus the temporal artery method. In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 24 February 2011, Journal of Pediatric Nursing (2011).
6. Barringer LB, Evans CW, Ingram LL, Tisdale PP, Watson SP, Janken JK (Presbyterian Hospital Matthews). Agreement between temporal artery, oral, and axillary temperature measurements in the perioperative period. J Perianesth Nurs. 2011 Jun;26(3):143-50.
7. Barry L, Branco J, et al. The impact of user technique on temporal artery thermometer measurements. Nursing Critical Care: September 2016 – Volume 11 – Issue 5 – p 12–14.
8. Batra P, Saha A, Faridi MM. Thermometry in children. J Emerg Trauma Shock. 2012 Jul;5(3):246-9.
9. Batra P, Goyal S. Comparison of rectal, axillary, tympanic, and temporal artery thermometry in the pediatric emergency room. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2013 Jan;29(1):63-6. doi: 10.1097/PEC.0b013e31827b5427.
10. Beedle SE, Phillips A, et al. Preventing unplanned perioperative hypothermia in children. AORN J. 2017 Feb;105(2):170-183. doi: 10.1016/j.aorn.2016.12.002.
11. Bordonaro SF, McGillicuddy DC, Pompei F, Burmistrov D, Harding C, Sanchez LD. Human temperatures for syndromic surveillance in the emergency department: data from the autumn wave of the 2009 swine flu
(H1N1) pandemic and a seasonal influenza outbreak. BMC Emerg Med. 2016 Mar 9;16(1):16. doi:10.1186/s12873-016-0080-7.
12. Bradley SL, Kwater AP, et al. Is skin temperature measurement in PACU an accurate reflection of core temperature? ASA Abstract A3182, the Anesthesiology Annual Meeting 2016, http://www.asaabstracts.com
13. Bridges E, Thomas K (University of Washington). Noninvasive measurement of body temperature in critically ill patients. Crit. Care Nurse. 2009; 29(3): p. 94-97
14. Burdjalov VF, Combs A, Nachman S, Baumgart S (SUNY at Stony Brook). Non-Invasive infrared temperature assessment of the temporal artery for core temperature determination in premature neonates, Presented American Pediatric Society and the Society for Pediatric Research, May 1, 2001.
15. Callanan D (Christus Santa Rosa Children’s Hospital). Detecting fever in young infants: reliability of perceived, pacifier, and temporal artery temperatures in infants younger than 3 months of age. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2003 Aug;19(4):240-3.
16. Calonder EM, Sendelbach S, Hodges JS, Gustafson C, Machemer C, Johnson D, Reiland L (Abbott Northwestern Hospital). Temperature measurement in patients undergoing colorectal surgery and gynecology surgery: a comparison of esophageal core, temporal artery, and oral methods. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing, Volume 25, Issue 2, April 2010, Pages 71-78
17. Canales AE (Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center). OTC device: temporal scanner TAT-2000C. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash DC). 2007 Jan-Feb;47(1):112.
18. Carleton E, Fry B, Mulligan A, Bell A, Brossart C. Temporal artery thermometer use in the prehospital setting. Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine 2012;14(1):7-13.
19. Carr EA, Wilmoth ML, Eliades AB, Baker PJ, Shelestak D, Heisroth KL, Stoner KH (Akron Children's Hospital). Comparison of Temporal Artery to Rectal Temperature Measurements in Children Up to 24 Months, Journal of Pediatric Nursing, In Press, [Epub ahead of print], Jan 25, 2010.
20. Carroll D, Finn C, Gill S, et al (Massachusetts General Hospital). A comparison of measurements from a temporal artery thermometer and a pulmonary artery catheter thermometer. Am J Crit Care. 2004;13:258.
21. Chiu SH, Anderson GC, Burkhammer MD (University of Akron/Case Western Reserve University). Newborn temperature during skin-to-skin breastfeeding in couples having breastfeeding difficulties. Birth. 2005 Jun;32(2):115-21.
22. Crossley B. Blanket warmers revisited and temporal thermometers. Biomedical Instrumentation and Technology, March/April 2012 p147.
23. Dybwik K, Nielsen EW. Infrared temporal temperature measurement. Journal of the Norwegian Medical Association 2003; 123: 3025-6.
24. Espenhein A (County Hospital in Herlev, Denmark). Temporal temperature measurement. Sygeplejersken 2006;(17):50-2.
25. Fetzer SJ, Lawrence A (Southern New Hampshire Medical Center). Tympanic membrane versus temporal artery temperatures of adult perianesthesia patients. J Perianesth Nurs. 2008 Aug;23(4):230-6.
26. Foy S, McGillicuddy D, Pompei F, Sanchez L (Beth Israel Medical Center, Boston MA). Body Temperature Surveillance and Reporting in the Emergency Department: A Practical Sentinel for Pandemics and
Bioterrorism. Presented at Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Annual Meeting, Phoenix AZ , June 3-6, 2010.
27. Fratto L, Hogan K, Kenney K. Temporal artery thermometry use in pediatric patients in the post-anesthesia care unit. 2012 Research and EBP Abstracts ASPAN's 31st National Conference April 15-19, 2012, Orlando, FL
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28. Furlong D, Carroll D, Finn C, Gay D, Gryglik C, Donahue V (2015). Comparison of Temporal to Pulmonary Artery Temperature in Febrile Patients. Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing. 2015 Jan-Feb; 34(1):47-52. doi: 10.1097/DCC.0000000000000090.
29. Greenes DS, Fleisher GR. (Boston Childrens Hospital and Harvard Medical School). Accuracy of a noninvasive temporal artery thermometer for use in infants. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, Vol 155, pp 376-381, Mar 2001
30. Greenes DS, Fleisher GR. (Boston Childrens Hospital and Harvard Medical School). When body temperature changes, does rectal temperature lag? Journal of Pediatrics, 02.037, pp 824-826, September 2004.
31. Gunawan M, Soetjiningsih I ( Udayana University, Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar, Indonesia). Comparison of the accuracy of body temperature measurements with temporal artery thermometer and axillary mercury
thermometer in term newborns. Paediatr Indones, Vol. 50, No. 2, March 2010.
32. Haddad, L., Smith, S., Phillips, K.D., and Heidel, R.E. (2012). Comparison of temporal artery and axillary temperatures in healthy newborns. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing, 41, 383-388; doi:
33. Hargreaves L. (2017) Toolkit for implementation of temporal artery thermometers for neonates. ProQuest Number 10603156, Published by ProQuest LLC (2017)
34. Harper CM ( Royal Sussex County Hospital Brighton, UK). The need for an accurate noninvasive thermometer. Anesth Analg. 2009 Jul;109(1):288; author reply 288-9.
35. Hayes K, Shepard A, Cesarec A, et al. Cost minimisation analysis of thermometry in two different hospital systems. Postgrad Med J Published Online First: 18 January 2017, doi:10.1136/postgradmedj-2016-134630
36. Health Canada (2017). Summary Safety Review – Ear and Forehead (contact) Infrared Thermometers (various brands) – Assessing the potential risk of inaccuracy in children under 2 years old.
37. Hebbar K, Fortenberry JD, Rogers K, Merritt R, Easley K. (Children's Healthcare of Atlanta at Egleston). Comparison of temporal artery thermometer to standard temperature measurements in pediatric intensive care unit patients. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2005 Sep;6(5):557-61.
38. Hughes D. Study recommends use of professional temporal thermometer in adults. Oncology Nurse Advisor
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39. Hurwitz B1, Brown J, Altmiller G. Improving pediatric temperature measurement in the ED. Am J Nurs. 2015 Sep;115(9):48-55. doi:10.1097/01.NAJ.0000471249.69068.73.
40. Isler, A., et al. Comparison of temporal artery to mercury and digital temperature measurement in pediatrics. Int. Emerg.Nurs. (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ienj.2013.09.003
41. Kirk D, Rainey T, Vail A, Childs C (University of Manchester, Salford Royal Foundation Trust). Infra-red thermometry: the reliability of tympanic and temporal artery readings for predicting brain temperature after severe traumatic brain injury. Crit Care. 2009 May 27;13(3):R81. [Epub ahead of print]
42. Kumana C. Minimising the costs of temperature monitoring in hospitals. Postgrad Med J Published Online First:
1 February 2017 doi:10.1136/postgradmedj-2017-134795
43. Langham GE, Maheshwari A, Contrera K, You J, Mascha E, Sessler DI (Case Western Reserve University). Noninvasive temperature monitoring in postanesthesia care units. Anesthesiology, V 111, No 1, Jul 2009
44. Lawson L, Bridges E, Ballou I, Eraker R, Greco S, Shively J, Sochulak V. (University of Washington). Temperature measurement in critically ill adults. Am. J. Crit. Care., May 2006; 15: 324 – 346.
45. Lawson L, Bridges E, Ballou I, Eraker R, Greco S, Shively J, Sochulak V. (University of Washington). Accuracy and precision of noninvasive temperature measurement in adult intensive care patients. Am. J. Crit. Care., Sep 2007; 16:5, 485-496.
46. Lee G, Flannery-Bergey D, Randall-Rollins K, Curry D, Rowe S, Teague M, Tuininga C, Schroeder S (Exempla Lutheran Medical Center). Accuracy of temporal artery thermometry in neonatal intensive care infants.
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48. Martinez EA, Krenzischek D, Hobson D, Hunt D (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions). The structure and processes of care delivery impact postoperative normothermia. Anesthesiology 2007; 107: A496.
49. Mason TM, Reich RR, et al. Equivalence of temperature measurement methods in the adult hematology/oncology population. Clin J Oncol Nurs. 2015 Apr;19(2):E36-40. doi: 10.1188/15.CJON.E36-E40.
50. McConnell E, Senseney D, George S, Whipple D. Reliability of temporal artery thermometers. Medsurg Nursing 2013, Nov-Dec 2013, Vol. 22/No. 6, p387
51. Merrill, K. (Seattle Children’s Hospital). Comparison of temporal artery temperature measurement with standard temperature measurement in critically ill children. American Journal of Critical Care. 2014, May,
52. Moore AH, Carrigan JD, Solomon DM, Tart RC. Temporal artery thermometry to detect pediatric fever. Clin Nurs Res. 2015 Oct;24(5):556-63. doi: 10.1177/1054773814557481. Epub 2014 Nov 14.
53. Myny D, DeWaele J, Defloor T, Blot S, Colardyn F (Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium). Temporalscanner thermometry: a new method of core temperature measurement in intensive care patients. SMJ 2005
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57. Pittman R and Waters R (CaroMont Health Care, Gastonia, NC). Do our patients have hypothermia? Temporal versus oral thermometers. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing Volume 24, Issue 3, June 2009, Page e18.
58. Pompei F, Pompei M. Non-invasive temporal artery thermometry: Physics, Physiology, and Clinical Accuracy, presented at Medical Thermometry for SARS Detection, SPIE Defense and Security Symposium, available in Conference Proceedings, April, 2004.
59. Pompei F. Insufficiency in thermometer data. Anesth Analg. 2003 Mar;96(3):908-9.
60. Pompei F. RE: A brief report on the normal range of forehead temperature as determined by noncontact, handheld, infrared thermometer. Am J Infect Control. 2006 May;34(4):248-9.
61. Pompei F. Misguided guidelines on noninvasive thermometry. Crit Care Med. 2009 Jan;37(1):383; author reply 383-4.
62. Reynolds M, et al. Are temporal artery temperatures accurate enough to replace rectal temperature measurement in pediatric ED patients? J Emerg Nurs. 2012 Nov 8. pii: S0099-1767(12)00329-7. doi:
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64. Routhier D, Hostler D, Wolfson A, Wheeler M, Reynolds J (University of Pittsburgh). Comparison of temporalartery and oral temperatures in the emergency department. ACAD EMERG MED, May 2006, Vol. 13, No. 5,
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65. Roy S, Powell K, Gerson LW (Akron Children’s Hospital). Temporal artery temperature measurements in healthy infants, children, and adolescents. Clinical Pediatrics, pp 433-437, June 2003.
66. Sandlin D (Southern Hills Medical Center, Nashville TN). New Product Review: Temporal Artery Thermometry, Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing, Vol. 18, No 6 (December) 2003, pp 419-421.
67. Schuh S, Komar L, Stephens D, Chu L, Read S, Allen U (University of Toronto/Hospital for Sick Children). Comparison of the temporal artery and rectal thermometry in children in the emergency department. Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting, May 3-6, 2003, Seattle, WA.
68. Schuh S, Komar L, Stephens D, Chu L, Read S, Allen U (University of Toronto/Hospital for Sick Children). Comparison of the temporal artery and rectal thermometry in children in the emergency department. Pediatric Emergency Care, Vol 20, No. 11, Nov 2004
69. Siberry GK, Diener-West M, Schappell E, Karron RA (Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University). Comparison of temple temperatures with rectal temperatures in children under two years of age. Clinical Pediatrics, pp 405-414, July/August 2002.
70. Smith et al. Comparison of axillary and temporal artery thermometry in preterm neonates. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2018 Apr 3. pii: S0884-2175(18)30052-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jogn.2018.02.013. [Epub ahead of print]
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73. Titus MO, Hulsey T, Heckman J, Losek JD (Medical University of South Carolina and Children’s Hospital). Temporal artery thermometry utilization in pediatric emergency care. Clinical Pediatrics, Mar 2009; vol. 48: pp. 190 – 193.
74. Yang WC, Kuo HT, et al. Tympanic temperature versus temporal temperature in patients with pyrexia and chills.Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Nov;95(44):e5267.